References on Pre-puberty Neutering/Spaying and
Risk of Orthopedic Conditions


Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 


Delayed closure of growth plates:
Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, et al.  Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical and behavioral development.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:1193-1203


Increased incidence of CCL Rupture:
Duval JM, Budberg SC, Flo GL, et al.  Breed, sex and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:811-814

Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, et al.  Canine overiohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury.  Clin Orthop 2004;429:301-305

Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH.  Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:1016-1019


Increased incidence of hip dysplasia:
van Hagan MA, Ducro BJ, van den Broek J, et al.  Incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of Boxers.  Am J Vet Res 2005;66(2):307-312


Increased incidence of patellar luxation:
Vidoni B. Sommerfeld-Stur und Eisenmenger: Diagnostic and genetic aspects of patellar luxation in small and miniature breed dogs in Austria.  Wien Tierarztl Mschr 2005;92:170-181


Root MV.  Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:1665-1675